A Priori Knowledge
Genus: Knowledge
Differentia: Existing Prior to experience
Link: Article
Genus: Condition of validity
Differentia: Unconditional / always true
Genus: Mental process
Differentia: Forms a generalization from particulars
Genus: Position on the existence of God
Differentia: The claim of non-belief in God and the non-disbelief in God - that the state of Gods existence is unknowable
Comment: This is an example of the evasion of the Law of Excluded Middle.
Genus: Code of Ethics
Differentia: The welfare of others is the standard of the good / holds the sacrifice of the self to others as the good
Link: Article
Genus: Code of Ethics
Differentia: There is no right or wrong, no standard of value by which to judge actions
Genus: Political Theory
Differentia: Government is unnecessary and evil
Link: Article
Genus: Concept
Differentia: Unusable term that destroys a valid concept
Anti-Conceptual Mentality
Genus: Mentality
Differentia: The tendency to think only in concretes and not in principles
Genus: Law
Differentia: Regulations on successful businesses
Comment: Tries to promote economic competition through force - the only way to destroy competition. It is based on a false notion of competition.
Link: Article
Genus: Judgment of the validity of a claim
Differentia: Not based on any evidence for or against
Argument From Analogy
Genus: Inductive Proof
Differentia: Because two things are similar in some respects, they are likely to be similar in other respects
Argument From Analogy for Other Minds
Genus: Argument From Analogy
Differentia: Claims that because you have a mind and act rationally, other people who act rationally also have minds.
Argument From Design
Genus: Argument From Analogy
Differentia: Claims the existence for God because some complicated things are made by people therefore complicated natural phenomena must also have some designer i.e. God
Comment: Violates Occam's Razor, among other things
Argument From Intimidation
Genus: Argument
Differentia: Claim that the denial of the validity of an argument is immoral
Comment: This is a logical fallacy which appeals to moral self-doubt.
Genus: Philosopher
Differentia: Developer of the laws of logic; believed that reality is real and knowable
Genus: Ethical System
Differentia: Holds that true meaning and beauty can only be non-physical, and therefore one should refrain from all physical pleasures
Genus: Position on the existence of God
Differentia: The non-belief in God
Genus: Statement
Differentia: An irreducible primary that is logically undeniable
Link: Article
Genus: Trait
Differentia: A sense of harmony
Genus: Branch of psychology
Differentia: Acceptance that men's actions are merely a direct response to external stimuli
Comment: This denies Free Will.
Genus: Mental process
Differentia: The acceptance that an idea is true
Comment: Belief omits degrees.
Benevolent Universe Premise
Genus: View of the world
Differentia: The universe is neutral - it simply is; but man, if acting in accordance with reality can achieve his values and flourish
Genus: A social system
Differentia: Based on individual rights including property rights, meaning that all property is privately owned
Link: Article
Genus: Relationship
Differentia: Describes how all causes have specific effects / all actions have specific reactions according to the nature of the entities involved
Comment: This is the law of identity applied over time
Genus: Degree of belief
Differentia: When there are no doubts - all evidence is for and there is no evidence against a proposition
Comment: Certainty is contextual.
Link: Article
Genus: Explanation
Differentia: Describes future events that are unknown or past events with unclear causes
Genus: Aspect of a person's personality
Differentia: That which is shaped by the fundamental moral values he accepts and automatizes
Genus: Gift
Differentia: Motivated by pity
Closed Minded
Genus: Mentality
Differentia: Rational evasion of new ideas
Comment: Opposite of Open Minded
Civil Disobedience
Genus: Crime
Differentia: Committed as a protest against a specific law
Collective Rights
Genus: A set of privileges
Differentia: Granted to groups under the pretense of "rights"
Comment: This is based on the false notion of positive rights.
Genus: A view of the individuals position in society
Differentia: Man is a generic cog in the machine of society with society as the basic unit of reality and values
Common Good
Genus: Value
Differentia: Of value to a group
Comment: A group is only a collection of individuals and as such, can not value anything apart from what individuals in that group individually value. "Common Good" is a fallacious concept based on the premise of collectivism.
Genus: Type of government
Differentia: Explicit Common ownership of all property and people
Comment: 100 million murdered and counting
Link: Article
Community Service
Genus: Action
Differentia: A contradictory term ostensibly meaning to provide a service to the community
Comment: It is not a service because it is typically done without compensation and it is not value providing to the community since a community can have no standard of value.
Genus: Empathy
Differentia: Towards suffering people that you value
Comment: Compassion for evil people is context-dropping.
Genus: Mental Abstraction
Differentia: Integrates two or more particulars into a common mental unit
Link: Article
Genus: State of existence
Differentia: Characterized by having an awareness of reality
Link: Article
Conservative (political)
Genus: Political position
Differentia: Generally supports government intervention in social issues but supports freedom in economic issues
Genus: Information
Differentia: Specific background or circumstance relevant to a topic
Genus: Action
Differentia: Ignoring contextual details that are relevant and important to an idea
Genus: Agreement
Differentia: Legally binding specification of the terms of a trade that takes place over time
Genus: Relationship between two ideas
Differentia: Both the ideas can not be true because each necessitates the falsity of the other
Comment: Contradictions, by definition, do not exist.
Genus: Idea
Differentia: Necessitated by the truth of another idea or ideas
Genus: Science
Differentia: Studies the origin and nature of the universe
Cosmology, Monistic
Genus: Cosmology
Differentia: Traces the origin of the universe to a single substance
Cosmology, Pluralistic
Genus: Cosmology
Differentia: Traces the origin of the universe to multiple substances
Genus: Action
Differentia: To rearrange existents in a purposeful manner
Genus: Set of ideas, traditions and beliefs
Differentia: Shared by a group of people
Genus: Attitude or perspective
Differentia: Looking at things with the view that man is evil
Comment: People are cynical of government. They think that politicians do things to further their own personal goals, instead of the goals shared by the rest of the populace
Genus: Mental process of forming conclusions based on premises
Differentia: Goes from the general to the specific
Comment: Traditionally philosophers have treated Deduction as the only means to certainty. This is misbegotten.
Link: Article
Genus: Description
Differentia: Fundamentally describes a concept
Link: Article
Genus: Change in the money supply
Differentia: Decrease
Genus: Type of government
Differentia: Rule by the people
Comment: In true democracy, all government decisions are made by vote.
Link: Article
Genus: Theory of causality
Differentia: Everything in the universe is predetermined directly by previous events
Comment: This is often used as a method of denying free will, but that denial is a dropping of context.
Link: Article
Genus: A set of beliefs
Differentia: Accepted on faith
Genus: A moral obligation
Differentia: Caused by an obedience to a higher authority
Link: Article
Economic Interventionism
Genus: Government policy
Differentia: Forceful manipulation of the free market in the hopes of achieving some particular end
Comment: This never works out well.
Economic Power
Genus: Power to persuade
Differentia: Gained through trade and production
Comment: The opposite of political power
Genus: System
Differentia: Of production, trade, and consumption
Genus: Ethical belief
Differentia: That mean should be equal
Link: Article
Genus: Ethical system
Differentia: The self is the standard of value
Comment: Variants of Egoism include Hedonism and Rational Egoism
see: Law of Excluded Middle
Genus: Event or Situation
Differentia: Unexpected event causing temporary conditions where human survival is impossible
Genus: Subconscious responses
Differentia: Automated; triggered and programmed by ones thoughts and value judgments
Link: Article
Genus: Epistemological theory
Differentia: Experience is the sole source of knowledge
Comment: Denies the knowledge gained by abstract reasoning (i.e. induction and deduction.
Enlightenment, Age of
Genus: Period of history
Differentia: 18th century; period when reason was accepted as valid and respected
Genus: Existent
Differentia: As a particular and discrete unit
Genus: Ethical system
Differentia: Holds nature untainted by man as the standard of value
Comment: The corollary to this is that man and anything that man does is evil.
Genus: Hedonism
Differentia: Standard of value is happiness or the avoidance of pain
Genus: Nature of a concept
Differentia: Concept is a mental entity
Comment: As opposed to being a physical entity or an intrisic property
Genus: Branch of philosophy
Differentia: Dealing with knowledge, how it is gained, and its relationship to reality
Link: Article
Genus: Branch of Philosophy
Differentia: Deals with art and its purpose
Link: Article
Genus: Branch of Philosophy
Differentia: Deals with how man should act
Link: Article
Genus: Mental process
Differentia: Intentional attempt to deny, overlook, or ignore information or ideas
Link: Article
Genus: Characteristic of an action
Differentia: Opposes a moral standard of value
Genus: Collection of entities
Differentia: Including everything that has actual being
Comment: This include mental entities existing as mental entities
Link: Article
Genus: Thing
Differentia: That exists
Comment: This includes entities, attributes, and actions.
Genus: Philosophy
Differentia: Holds that there is no intrinsic meaning or purpose, therefore it is up to each individual to determine his own meaning and purpose and take responsibility for his actions. Views the world as "absurd".
Link: External Article
Genus: Belief
Differentia: Accepted without reason or evidence and often in spite of evidence
Link: Article
Genus: Identification of a proposition
Differentia: Not corresponding to reality
Genus: Determinism
Differentia: Holds that all future events are determined by fate and unalterable
Genus: Mental action
Differentia: Direct the mind toward a particular topic
Link: Article
Genus: A method of creating or sustaining any interaction
Differentia: Not voluntary by all parties
Link: Article
Genus: Deception
Differentia: Employed to gain value
Link: Article
Free Market
Genus: Freedom
Differentia: People can trade their goods and services by mutual consent, without coercion
Link: Article
Free Speech
Genus: Freedom
Differentia: People are permitted to speak without interference or punishment of the government
Comment: This freedom does not require others to provide you with the means to speak
Link: Article
Free Will
Genus: An ability
Differentia: The mind's power to make choices
Link: Article
Genus: Action
Differentia: Voluntary, in the absence of coercion
Genus: Attribute (of an attribute)
Differentia: Within a context, the most important characteristic
Link: Article
Genus: A being
Differentia: Omnipotent, omnibenevolent, omnipresent, unlimited creator of the universe
Comment: It's defined by it's lack of characteristics and limits. Invalid concept.
Link: Article
Gold Standard - a system of money
Genus: System of money
Differentia: Characterized by the actual use some commodity
Comment: Historically, gold was one such standard that tended to work the best in the free market.
Genus: Organization
Differentia: Within a specific geographic location that is dominant in physical force
Link: Article
Guild Socialism
Genus: Socialism
Differentia: Public ownership is divided by profession
Comment: The grouping of all men of a certain profession into one group with that group deciding what and how the work should be done, and receiving the benefits of its labor. All other men outside the group must be barred from that profession.
Genus: A state of consciousness
Differentia: Based on the achievements of one's values, it is characterized by pleasure and satisfaction
Genus: Ethical system
Differentia: The standard of value is whatever gives you pleasure
Link: Article
Hierarchy of Knowledge
Genus: A structure of knowledge
Differentia: Some ideas are based on the others, forming multiple levels of abstraction, where the base is perception
Link: Article
Human Rights
see: Rights
Genus: virtue/anti-concept
Differentia: Evading one's possession of other virtues
Comment: Humility demands that you never take credit for your virtues. It is the opposite of pride
Link: Article
Genus: Aspect of existence
Differentia: All characteristics of an entity
Link: Article
Genus: A set of beliefs
Differentia: Describes perfection or a worthy aim
Genus: Mental faculty
Differentia: The ability to rearrange observations into forms which one has not directly perceived
Implicit Knowledge
Genus: Knowledge
Differentia: Hasn't been identified explicitly, but is used in the process of reasoning nonetheless
Comment: Most aspects of philosophy are grasped implicitly before they are properly defined. An example is the concept of existence, which is required for any other knowledge, but can go left implicit throughout one's life.
Inalienable Rights
Genus: Rights
Differentia: Refers to the fact that rights are inalienable, meaning they cannot be removed from the bearer for any reason
Genus: Virtue
Differentia: Never requires or desires the unearned
Link: Article
Genus: A view of the individuals position in society
Differentia: Society is merely a sum of individuals
Genus: Mental process of forming conclusions based on premises
Differentia: Goes from the specific to the generic
Link: Article
Genus: A conceptual tool used to indicate a measurement
Differentia: Without a particular boundary / unbounded
Comment: This contradicts the law of identity, so should be recognized as a metaphysical impossibility.
Genus: Change in the money supply
Differentia: Increase
Comment: Often accompanied by a general increase in prices, the term is mostly misused to refer to the price increases, which is just a possible effect.
Initiation of Force
Genus: Act
Differentia: One man causing the beginning of a not mutually voluntary relationship
Link: Article
Genus: Knowledge
Differentia: Automatic and innate, prescribing actions required for survival
Comment: Instincts are not actually a form of knowledge, although the effect is the same. Knowledge is the product of a mental process. Instincts bypass this entirely.
Genus: Virtue
Differentia: Practicing one's convictions
Link: Article
Genus: People
Differentia: Involved in complex, abstract reasoning
Genus: A mental faculty
Differentia: The capacity to acquire and apply knowledge
Genus: The source of an attribute
Differentia: The attribute is inherent in the entity
Comment: Intrinsic means the attribute exists without relation to another object.
Intrinsic Theory of Value
Genus: A theory of the source of values
Differentia: Values exist as an aspect of a physical object, without relation to the valuer
Link: Article
Genus: Process of cognition
Differentia: Directed inwards or at one's mental or psychological state
Invalid Concept
Genus: A mental construct
Differentia: The product of an attempt to integrate contradictions and errors, or to use a word without having a specific definition
Comment: An invalid concept superficially appears to be a concept, but it has no referents in reality, and can not be used meaningfully.
Genus: An epistemological belief
Differentia: Reason is not valid or useful
Genus: A position on foreign policy
Differentia: Having no concern for the rest of the world
Comment: This is an anti-concept. Although defined as above, it is used to refer to any foreign policy aimed at national self-interest. It's a smear to be used against anyone who argues against a foreign policy.
Genus: Virtue
Differentia: Treating others as they deserve to be treated
Link: Article
Kant, Immanuel
Genus: Philosopher
Differentia: Believed that reality as we see it is distorted, and the true reality is unknowable
Genus: A mental construct
Differentia: Grasps an aspect of reality
see: Free Market
Genus: A system of symbols
Differentia: Each symbol, or word, refers to a concept
Link: Article
Genus: A rule
Differentia: Pre-defined, specifying the permissible actions of men
Link: Article
Law of Excluded Middle
Genus: Logical axiom
Differentia: A proposition is either true or false, but cannot be both or neither.
Genus: A mental process
Differentia: Acquiring knowledge through instruction or study
Genus: A political belief system, or a person who accepts the system
Differentia: To believe that the initiation of force should not be permitted in any aspect of life
Comment: This definition above is the true, original definition of the term. In America the term has been changed to mean the opposite, including the left-wing and other socialists.
Genus: People with a particular political system of beliefs
Differentia: They believe that the initiation of force should not be permitted in any aspect of life
Genus: A process
Differentia: Self-sustaining and self-generated action
Genus: An art or process
Differentia: Removing or preventing contradictions in one's thoughts or ideas
Link: Article
Genus: Emotion
Differentia: Based on a positive value-judgment, it is positive and often intense
Malevolent Universe Premise
Genus: View of the world
Differentia: The premise that the universe is somehow out to get you or is unfit for human life.
Comment: According to this premise, our very survival is a desperate, unhappy fight against insurmountable odds.
Genus: An animal
Differentia: One possessing a rational faculty
Comment: In the context of philosophy, man refers to a human being, regardless of gender.
Market Value
Genus: Value
Differentia: Defined through a market process, it is the price at which buyers and sellers agree to trade
Genus: Ethical theory
Differentia: Values consist only of material goods
Genus: Science
Differentia: The relationship and properties of quantities, through the use of numbers
Genus: Entity
Differentia: Takes up space and physically exists
Mental Entity
Genus: Entity
Differentia: Existing in someone's mind.
Comment: This includes thoughts, ideas, and memories.
Link: Article
Mental Integration
Genus: Mental process
Differentia: Taking isolated ideas and consolidating them into a new unified whole
Link: Article
Genus: Type of government / anti-concept
Differentia: Those with the most ability rule
Comment: The only way to determine the most able would be through a free market which is not possible in politics.
Metaphysically Given
Genus: Attribute of existents
Differentia: Exists as it is independent of man; natural phenomenon
Comment: The Metaphysically Given is not true or false, but is the standard of judging true or false.
Metaphysical Realism
Genus: Metaphysical belief
Differentia: That the world around us exists and is independent of our thoughts or feelings
Genus: Branch of philosophy
Differentia: Dealing with existence and the nature of the universe
Link: Article
Mill, John Stuart
Genus: Philosopher and Economist
Differentia: Exponent of Utilitarianism
Minority Rights
Genus: Collective rights
Differentia: Applicable to minorities
Genus: Event
Differentia: Caused by supernatural forces which supposedly contradict causality
Link: Article
Mixed Economy
Genus: Economy
Differentia: Part free market and part socialist
Link: Article
Genus: Political privilege
Differentia: Government forcibly prohibits competition
Comment: Using monopoly to mean "Dominant in market share" is an anti-concept which evades the difference between economic power and political power.
Link: Article
Genus: Code of action
Differentia: Defines how man should live his life
Link: Article
Genus: Change of identity
Differentia: Change in something's position
Genus: Metaphysical system
Differentia: Claims that there are realities other than that which we perceive
Comment: All mysticism is arbitrary.
Link: Article
National Rights
Genus: Collective rights
Differentia: Applied to nations
Natural Theology
Genus: Method of studying God
Differentia: Through reason alone
Comment: As opposed to Revealed Theology
Genus: Esthetic category
Differentia: Subject and style should imitate reality precisely
see: Existence
Genus: Thing
Differentia: Required to achieve some specific end
Genus: Requirements
Differentia: For survival
Nihilism (1)
Genus: Skepticism
Differentia: The denial of all existence
Nihilism (2)
Genus: View on meaning and value
Differentia: Meaning and value do not exist
Comment: This view assumes that meaning and value must be Metaphysical, when they are in fact Epistemological -- i.e. meaning and value are not physical, they are mental entities.
Genus: Epistemological and Metaphysical theory
Differentia: Various objects labeled by the same term have nothing in common but their name
Comment: This denies the validity of concepts
Genus: Conceptual tool
Differentia: Refers to the lack of a particular things existence
Link: Article
Non-Objective Law
Genus: Law
Differentia: Characterized by lack of definition or the inability to be applied consistently
Genus: Goal
Differentia: That is not desired or useful
Genus: Concept
Differentia: Quantity of units
Objective Law
Genus: Law
Differentia: Characterized by a clear definition or the ability to be applied consistently
Objective Theory of Value
Genus: Theory of the source of values
Differentia: Values are derived from an evaluation of the facts of reality based on a standard of value
Genus: Act
Differentia: Referencing reality
Link: Article
Occam’s Razor
Genus: General rule
Differentia: The fewer assumptions that a theory makes, the better it is.
Comment: To deny this rule is to state that adding any number of unnecessary assumptions to a theory does not impact its plausibility. For example, consider these two theories: 1) The sum of the three interior angles of a triangle equal 180 degrees; 2) The sum of the three interior angles of a right triangle equal 180 degrees. Occam’s Razor suggests that 1) is a more useful, precise, and correct theory, because it makes the same assertion with fewer assumptions.
Genus: Measurement of ability
Differentia: Having unlimited power or all-powerful
Comment: This is a logically impossible attribute as shown by the following example: Given that X is omnipotent, can X create a rock that X can not lift? Whether yes or no, there is something not within X’s power, and thus X is not omnipotent.
Link: Article
Genus: Branch of Metaphysics
Differentia: Dealing with the nature of being and existence
Comment: For example: studying the fact that all existents have identity
Open Minded
Genus: Mentality
Differentia: Accepting of new ideas
Comment: Opposite of closed minded, but sometimes used incorrectly to mean openness any new idea no matter how wrong or useless
Original Sin
Genus: Religious belief
Differentia: That man by his nature is wicked an evil
Comment: Traces from the mythology of Adam and Eve and that whole apple nonsense.
Link: Article
Genus: Political belief
Differentia: Using force is always wrong
Comment: This includes a renunciation of retaliatory force. It would only take 1 thug to destroy a society of pacifists. Open season on Pacifists!
Link: Article
Genus: Physical response to stimuli
Differentia: Unpleasant and negative
Genus: Living entity
Differentia: Survives by feeding off another living entity
Genus: Faculty
Differentia: Automatic integration of sensory stimulus
Link: Article
Genus: A system of beliefs
Differentia: Regarding the fundamental nature of existence, man, and man's relationship to existence
Link: Article
Genus: Philosopher
Differentia: Believed that reality is how we perceive it; that reality consists of universals and we perceive it in the form of particulars
Comment: The ultimate collectivist, since we are all aspects of the same universal entity of man.
Platonic Realism
Genus: Metaphysical theory
Differentia: Abstractions exist as real entities in another dimension that we perceive as imperfect reflections in the form of particulars
Genus: Physical response to stimuli
Differentia: Enjoyable and positive
Political Power
Genus: Power to kill
Differentia: Gained physical force, often wielded by or using the government
Comment: The opposite of economic power
Genus: Branch of philosophy
Differentia: Applies ethics to a society of people and the proper rules governing that society
Link: Article
Genus: Environmental condition
Differentia: Hazardous to man's health
Genus: Epistemological theory
Differentia: There is more than one kind of logic different logic applies for different people
Comment: This invalidates the whole notion of logic.
Genus: Condition of validity
Differentia: There is little evidence for and no evidence against
Genus: Philosophical system
Differentia: There are no absolutes do whatever works and don't question anything
Comment: It is a contradiction to claim that there are no absolutes, because that would be an absolute
Genus: Virtue
Differentia: Respecting oneself
Link: Article
Primacy of Consciousness
Genus: Metaphysical theory
Differentia: Reality is a product of ones mind and that knowledge of reality is gained through introspection
Link: Article
Primacy of Existence
Genus: Metaphysical theory
Differentia: Reality exists independent of ones mind and that knowledge of reality is gained through perception
Link: Article
Genus: Abstraction
Differentia: Fundamental and wide-reaching
Prior Certainty of Consciousness
Genus: Epistemological assumption
Differentia: Assume the existence of your consciousness without relation to the outside world
Comment: A starting point from which people try to derive existence which is misbegotten because an awareness has to be aware of something in the first place.
Genus: A result of an action
Differentia: A net benefit of the difference between the total value gained and the value lost
Genus: Evidence or argument
Differentia: Gives compelling reason to accept an argument as true
Property Rights
see: Right, Property
Genus: Science
Differentia: How people think
Public Interest
see: Common Good
Genus: An attribute of an action
Differentia: Acting in order to achieve some result
Rational Egoism
Genus: Ethical System
Differentia: One's life is his standard of value, and reason is the method of determining morality
Genus: Epistemological theory
Differentia: A priori reasoning is the means of gaining knowledge
Comment: Rationalism has many variants, but its main thrust is the denial of empirical evidence. It claims that knowledge is only gained through deductive reasoning, and denies the validity of induction and of sensory data.
Genus: Action
Differentia: Devising self-satisfying but incorrect reasons to explain something
Genus: Faculty
Differentia: Identifies and integrates perceptions
Link: Article
Reason as the only means of gaining knowledge
Genus: Rule of knowledge acquirement
Differentia: Only through experience and the integration of that experience through reason can one gain knowledge. Any notions, whims, or A Priori knowledge which is not founded in reality and reason is arbitrary and should not be considered knowledge.
Link: Article
Redistribution of Wealth
Genus: Theft
Differentia: Taking wealth from one person or group, and giving it to another person or group
Comment: Often done by a government. Usually not recognized as theft since it is legal.
Link: Article
Genus: A system of beliefs
Differentia: Based on explicit faith of the supernatural
Comment: Usually involving supernatural beings that one worships or fears.
Representative Government
Genus: Type of government
Differentia: Decisions of the government are made by a subset of the people who allegedly speak for the others
Retaliatory Force
Genus: Type of force
Differentia: Preventing or putting an end to an involuntary interaction by any means necessary
Retroactive Law
Genus: Law
Differentia: Although specified at a particular time, applies to a time period before that
Comment: A retroactive law nullifies the objectivity of the law, which is the purpose of having laws. It becomes nothing but a statement of the intent to punish people for actions that were legal when performed.
Revealed Theology
Genus: Method of studying God
Differentia: Through scriptural revelations
Comment: As opposed to Natural Theology
Genus: Recognition
Differentia: Of that which is necessary for a rational being to live in a society
Comment: Basically this entails the right to life, with the other rights being corollaries. The key to the first sentence is in a society. Food, shelter, clothing, etc., are not rights, but needs.
Link: Article
Right to Life
Genus: Right
Differentia: Freedom to promote one's life without the interference of others
Comment: Ultimately, the recognition that each individual is sovereign. Corollaries to this are the right to free speech, liberty, and property, among others.
Link: Article
Right, Free Speech
Genus: Right
Differentia: The recognition that speaking other than slander is not an initiation of force
Link: Article
Right, Liberty
Genus: Right
Differentia: The obligation of others to not initiate force on the individual
Link: Article
Right, Property
Genus: Right
Differentia: The ability to use in any way that which one produces or trades for
Link: Article
Rights of the Accused
Genus: Legal Right
Differentia: Restrictions on the use of force against an individual to ensure it is retaliatory force only
Comment: Examples include a right to a trial jury, the legal presumption of innocence, and a speedy trial
Rule of Law
Genus: A political system
Differentia: The use of force in society is determined by pre-defined, objective laws
Link: Article
Russell, Bertrand
Genus: Philosopher
Differentia: Famous for his works in seeming paradoxes, especially his own Russell's paradox
Genus: Exchange
Differentia: The voluntary exchange of a value for a non-value
Sanction of the Victim
Genus: Permission or approval
Differentia: Granted by a victim to the person or group that is attacking him
Genus: Philosophical system
Differentia: Developed in the middle ages, combined Christianity with philosophical and deductive inquiry
Comment: Ask such useful and significant questions as "How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?"
Genus: Body of knowledge
Differentia: Gained through the study of the Law of Identity as it is applied to nature
Genus: Identity
Differentia: Of a particular individual
Genus: Defense or protection
Differentia: For oneself, against destructive force
Genus: Attitude about oneself
Differentia: The belief that one is competent and capable, and that one's life is worthy of living
Genus: Judgment about the validity of a premise
Differentia: Obvious without need for proof or argument
Comment: Perception is self-evident. Concepts or ideas, though, only appear to be when one is very familiar with them.
Genus: Ethical judgment
Differentia: Whether an action promotes one's life and goals
Genus: Ethical motivation
Differentia: No concern for one's self or life
Genus: Physical responses
Differentia: Triggered by external events, they are the most basic sense data
Genus: Exchange
Differentia: Providing work for compensation
Comment: Some have tried to corrupt this to mean work without compensation.
Genus: Relationship
Differentia: Sharing attributes, but with different measurements
Genus: Belief
Differentia: All knowledge (everything) should be doubted
Genus: Type of government
Differentia: Public ownership of the means of production
Link: Article
Genus: Philosopher
Differentia: Popularized the question and answer method of inquiry, in which a hypothesis was analyzed to deduce consequences
Genus: View
Differentia: You are the only mind which exists and everything that you experience and sense is only part of your consciousness.
Comment: This is usually refuted through argument from analogy between your mind and those you see around you.
Soul-Body Dichotomy
Genus: Philosophical premise
Differentia: The spiritual and physical existence were different and opposed to one another
Comment: Also known as Mind-Body dichotomy. False dichotomy. The mind and body, or spiritual enlightenment and physical survival, are compatible and mutually supporting. To live, man must use his mind. To gain knowledge is to gain knowledge about reality.
Sound Argument
Genus: Valid argument
Differentia: With a true premise
Genus: A relational concept
Differentia: Refers to the area between two objects that have different positions
Standard of Value
Genus: Ethical criteria
Differentia: The goal by which an action is judged to be moral or immoral
Genus: Political position
Differentia: The government should have unlimited power to fulfill its goals
Genus: School of Philosophy / World View
Differentia: There is some natural (or divine) order to the universe and that man has a duty to act according to this order. It holds that only through reason and an indifference to pleasure and pain can one understand this order and thus know how to act.
Stolen Concept Fallacy
Genus: Use of a concept
Differentia: Undermine the concept itself by attacking the roots by which it depends
Comment: An example is the attempt to "prove that logic is not sound". Proof is a concept derived from logic. Without logic, there can be no proof.
Genus: Esthetic component
Differentia: To represent in essential characteristics
Subjective Theory of Value
Genus: Theory of the source of values
Differentia: Values are based on the will of the valuer, without relation to the facts of reality
Genus: Metaphysical and Epistemological theory
Differentia: Reality is generated or controlled by a conscious mind
Comment: Subjectivism equates Metaphysics with Epistemology. The world is a figment of your imagination.
Genus: Metaphysical theory
Differentia: Another kind of existence is out there, interacts with our world, and is not limited by the Law of Identity
Tabula Rasa
Genus: A biological and epistemological theory
Differentia: Man's mind, when first born, contains no knowledge, and must act in order to acquire it
Genus: Theft
Differentia: Legal government confiscation of property
Link: Article
Genus: Attribute of a philosophical system
Differentia: System attempts to explain a series of events in terms of goals or purposes
Comment: Usually attempts to explain natural phenomena in terms of design.
Genus: Belief
Differentia: In supernatural beings called gods that control reality
Genus: Political system
Differentia: A particular religious group is the government, and acts to promote their religion
Genus: A relational concept
Differentia: Between two events, measured in the duration of an action
Comment: A year is one revolution of the earth around the sun.
Genus: Epistemological system
Differentia: Ignoring or discounting empirical knowledge for a priori knowledge
Genus: Collectivism
Differentia: The society is a subset of all of the people
Comment: In this view, there is more than one collective group. Each group then interacts with one another. Individuals are still considered generic, unimportant building blocks.
Genus: Identification of a proposition
Differentia: Corresponding to reality
Genus: Identification
Differentia: The non-contradictory identification of reality
Ultimate Value
Genus: A value
Differentia: Source of all other values
Comment: To value something, you have to value it for the effect it will have. But you have to value that effect as well. This means that each value requires a higher level value to which you are ultimately aiming. This is your ultimate value. Life is that ultimate value.
Genus: A group of employees
Differentia: Organized ostensibly to negotiate collectively with employers such items as job definitions, compensation, hours worked, etc.
Comment: In practice it usually involves coercion of employers, union members, and non-union employees through violence and intimidation.
Genus: A sum of existents
Differentia: The total sum of everything that exists
Genus: Ethical system
Differentia: Value is measured as "utility", with the standard of value for everyone as the maximization of overall utility for the group.
Valid Argument
Genus: Deductive Argument
Differentia: Containing a premise which necessitates the conclusion
Comment: Neither the premise nor the conclusion have to be true for an argument to be valid.
An example of an untrue valid argument is: "All cows have five legs, and each cow leg has one hoof; therefore all cows have 5 hoofs." If the premise were true, so would be the conclusion. A valid argument with true premises is called a sound argument.
Genus: Goal
Differentia: Which one acts to gain or keep
Link: Article
Genus: Moral Habit
Differentia: Through which a value is achieved
Link: Article
Genus: Mental Faculty
Differentia: The ability and need to focus
Link: Article
Welfare State
Genus: Political system
Differentia: Characterized by the redistribution of wealth
Link: Article
Genus: Notion / Idea
Differentia: Sudden and arbitrary and not checked against reason

Copyright © 2001 by Jeff Landauer and Joseph Rowlands